Selina Solutions Concise ICSE Physics Class 10
Students who follow Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 understand each and every concept thoroughly as the answers are prepared in an interactive manner, based on the current ICSE board guidelines. While practising these solutions, students understand the logic in solving the questions without any difficulties.
Chapter 1 of Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 deals with the study of Force. Force applied on a body is defined as the rate of change in its linear momentum. A rigid body when acted upon by a force, can have two kinds of motion i.e., linear or translational motion and rotational motion. The turning effect on the body about an axis is due to the moment of force (or torque) applied on the body. The moment of force is equal to the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of force from the axis of rotation. A few concepts discussed in this chapter are translational and rotational motions, moment (turning effect) of a force or torque, couple, equilibrium of bodies, the principle of moments, centre of gravity, uniform circular motion, centripetal and centrifugal force.
Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 Chapter 2 is based on the concept of Work, energy and power. Work is said to be done only when the force applied on a body makes the body move (i.e., there is a displacement of the body). Some of the topics covered in this chapter are work, measurement of work, work done by the force of gravity W = mgh, units of work, power (P = W/t), units of power, energy (energy as work done), units of energy, mechanical energy and its different forms, potential energy (U), gravitational potential energy at a height (U = mgh), kinetic energy, conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy, different forms of energy, conversion of one form of energy into the other form, principle of conservation of energy, theoretical verification of K + U = constant for a freely falling body, application of the principle of conservation of energy to a simple pendulum.
Chapter 3 of Class 10 Selina Solutions Concise Physics textbook deals with the study of machines. A machine is a device by which we can either overcome a large resistive force at some point by applying a small force at a convenient point and in a desired direction. A load is a resistive or opposing force to be overcome by a machine, whereas effort is the force applied on the machine to overcome the load. The ratio of the velocity of effort to the velocity of the load is called the velocity ratio of the machine. A few points talked about in this chapter are machines, technical terms related to a machine, principle of a machine, the relationship between efficiency, mechanical advantage and velocity ratio, levers, kinds of levers, examples of each class of levers as found in the human body, pulley, single fixed pulley, single movable pulley, a combination of pulleys
The chapter discusses the refraction of light at plane surfaces. Refraction is the change in direction of the path of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another transparent medium. Concepts mentioned in this chapter are refraction of light, laws of refraction, speed of light in different media, the relationship between refractive index and speed of light, the principle of reversibility of the path of light, experimental verification of laws of refraction and determination of the refractive index of glass. Some of the other concepts discussed here are refraction of light through a rectangular glass block, multiple images in a thick plane glass plate or thick mirror, prism, refraction of light through a glass prism, real and apparent depth, apparent bending of a stick underwater, some consequences of the refraction of light.
Chapter 5 of Selina Solutions Concise ICSE Physics Class 10 gives information pertaining to the refraction through a lens. A lens is a transparent refracting medium bounded by either two spherical surfaces or one surface spherical and another surface plane. Points included in this chapter are lens, refraction of light through the equi-convex lens and equi-concave lens, principal (or construction) rays for ray diagrams, construction of ray diagram for a lens, characteristics and location of images for a convex lens and concave lens. A few other points mentioned here are the difference between the image formed by a convex and a concave lens, sign convention of measurement of distances, lens formula, linear magnification, power of a lens, magnifying glass or simple microscope, application of lenses, experimental determination of the focal length of a convex lens, to differentiate between a convex and a concave lens.
In Chapter 6 of Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10, we learn about Spectrum. On passing white light through a prism, the band of colours seen on a screen is called the Spectrum. Dispersion is the phenomenon of splitting of white light by a prism into its constituent colours. It occurs only at the first surface of the prism. Some of the concepts talked about in this chapter are deviation produced by a triangular prism, colours in white light with their wavelength and frequency range, dispersion of white light through a prism and formation of a spectrum, electromagnetic spectrum, properties and uses of different radiations of electromagnetic spectrum, distinction between the ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiations, scattering of light, some applications of scattering.
Chapter 7 of Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 deals with the study of Sound. Sound is produced when a body vibrates and it reaches us through the vibrations of the particles of the surrounding medium. An echo is the sound heard after reflection from a distant obstacle after the original sound has ceased. Using the ultrasonic waves, echoes find their application in sound ranging. The ultrasonic waves are more energetic than the audible sound. A few topics covered in this chapter are sound waves, reflection of sound waves, echo, determination of the speed of sound by the method of echo, use of echoes, natural vibrations, damped vibrations, forced vibrations, resonance (a special case of forced vibrations), some examples of resonance, characteristics of sound, music and noise.
Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 Chapter 8 discusses the topic Current Electricity. Current is defined as the rate of flow of charge. Points included in this chapter are the concept of charge, the concept of the current, concept of potential and potential difference, the concept of resistance, ohm’s law (V = IR), experimental verification of ohm’s law, ohmic and non-ohmic resistors, factors affecting the resistance of a conductor, specific resistance (or resistivity), choice of material of the wire, superconductors, an electromotive force (E.M.F) of a cell, the terminal voltage of a cell, the internal resistance of a cell, a combination of resistors, electrical energy, measurement of electrical energy (expression W = QV = V/t), electrical power and its expression P = W/t = VI, a commercial unit of electrical energy, a power rating of common electrical appliances, household consumption of electrical energy, the heating effect of current.
Chapter 9 of Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 textbook is based on the concept Household Circuits where we study about the main circuit, switches, fuses, earthing, safety precautions, three-pin plugs, colour coding of wires. The electric power is generated at 11 kV at the generating station because generation at a voltage higher than 11 kV causes insulation difficulties, while generation at a voltage lower than 11 kV involves a very high current. A cable is used to supply the electric power to a house from the city sub-station. The cable has three wires, live wire, a neutral wire and earth wire. Important topics explained in this chapter are the transmission of power from the generating station to the consumer, power distribution to a house, house wiring, fuse, switches, circuits with dual control switches (staircase wiring), earthing, three-pin plug and socket, high tension wires, safety precautions while using electricity.
Selina Solutions Concise Physics Chapter 10 discusses the concept Electro-magnetism. An electromagnet is a temporary strong magnet made by passing current in a coil wound around a piece of soft iron. A few concepts related to this chapter are oersted’s experiment on the magnetic effect of electric current, magnetic field and field lines due to current in a straight wire, the rule to find the direction of the magnetic field, magnetic field due to current in a loop (or circular coil), magnetic field due to a current-carrying cylindrical coil (or solenoid), electromagnet, permanent magnet, advantages of an electromagnet over a permanent magnet, uses of the electromagnet, force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field, simple d.c. motor, electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction, a.c. generator, frequency of a.c. in household supplies, the distinction between an a.c. generator and d.c. motor, transformer.
Chapter 11 of Selina Solutions Concise Physics Class 10 provides information pertaining to the properties of heat and its measurement using a Calorimeter. Concepts covered in this chapter are concept of heat, concept of temperature, factors affecting the quantity of heat absorbed to increase the temperature of a body, difference between heat and temperature, thermal (or heat) capacity, specific heat capacity, distinction between the heat capacity and specific heat capacity, specific heat capacity of some common substances, calorimeter, principle of method of mixtures (or principle of calorimetry), natural phenomena and consequences of high specific heat capacity of water, some examples of high and low heat capacity, change of phase (state), melting and freezing, heating curve of ice during melting, change in volume on melting, effect of pressure on the melting point, effect of impurities on the melting point, vaporisation or boiling, heating curve for water, change in volume on boiling, effect of pressure on the boiling point, effect of impurities on the boiling point, latent heat and specific latent heat, specific latent heat of fusion of ice, explanation of latent heat of melting on the basis of kinetic model, natural consequences of high specific latent heat of fusion of ice.
Chapter 12 of Selina Solutions Concise Physics discusses the topic Radioactivity. The process of spontaneous emission of alpha, beta and gamma radiations from the nucleus of atoms during their decay is known as Radioactivity. A few topics explained in this chapter are the structure of the atom and nucleus, atomic model, isotopes, isobars, isotones, radioactivity, radioactivity as the emission of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations, properties of alpha particles, properties of beta particles, properties of gamma radiations, the distinction between the properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiations, changes within the nucleus in alpha, beta and gamma emission, uses of radioactivity – radioisotopes, sources of harmful radiations, harmful effects of radiation, safety precautions while using nuclear energy, background radiations, nuclear energy, nuclear fission, the distinction between the radioactive decay and nuclear fission, nuclear fusion
Penned by R.Br. Goyal, this Selina ICSE concise Physics textbook is specially designed for the students of Class 10. Published by Selina Publishers, this textbook will be of great help for the students to prepare for their Board Examination. It comes with Enriched content that will firmly build a knowledge database of the elementary concepts of Physics in the candidates. Chapters included in the textbook:
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The moment of force is equal to the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of force from the axis of rotation.
S.I. unit of moment of force is Newton metre (Nm).
Moment of force about a point depends on the following two factors:
When the body is pivoted at a point, the force applied on the body at a suitable point rotates the body about the axis passing through the pivoted point.
The direction of rotation can be changed by changing the point of application of force. The given figure shows the anticlockwise and clockwise moments produced in a disc pivoted at its centre by changing the point of application of force F from A to B.
(i) When a body remains in the state of rest under the influence of the applied forces, the body is in static equilibrium. For example a book lying on a table is in static equilibrium.
(ii) When a body remains in the same state of motion (translational or rotational), under the influence of the applied forces, the body is said to be in dynamic equilibrium. For example, a rain drop reaches the earth with a constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium.
Speed is scalar but velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. So, speed remains constant but velocity and acceleration change with the change in direction, and in circular motion the direction of motion changes at every point.
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